As a frequent user of VPN (Virtual Private Network) for personal purposes, using both free software such as Hamachi and paid VPN service providers, I often encounter no issues accessing the Internet with a VPN session connected, except for the unavoidable decrease in bandwidth. However, recently when connecting to a remote network at office via a VPN session to perform some troubleshooting, I noticed that the wireless connection status on Windows quickly became “limited” as soon as the VPN session was started:
Despite this, the VPN still worked fine and provided access to the internal network, but not the Internet. According to my system administrator, the network is secure and therefore has no route to the Internet so the behavior is somewhat expected as Windows automatically gives the VPN connection highest priority thus prohibiting access to the Internet. After much research, I found an apparently simple solution for this in the advanced IPv4 settings of the VPN connection:
By disabling “Use default gateway on remote network” and re-establishing the VPN connection, I noticed that the wireless connection status was no longer “limited” and Internet access suddenly became available:
The VPN session was also established with the following details from ipconfig:
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.20.200
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.20.1
Some quick tests by pinging to the DNS server at 192.168.20.1 and a few other machines on the network showed that both the VPN connection and Internet access now worked fine after the setting change.
That was it, just a simple setting change, or so I thought. Unfortunately it was not that simple. Another issue came when I realized I could not access 18.104.22.168, another computer on the network, which I used to be able to before the setting change. Pinging the computer simply received no reply. Turning on “Use default gateway on remote network” and the server became accessible again.
Why is this the case? After spending another few more hours researching, the answer is found in this article from Microsoft. Apparently this behavior is due to the characteristics of VPN connections on Windows. The major relevant points from the article are summarized below:
- By default, a newly created VPN connection on Windows will have “Use default gateway on remote network” enabled, which sends all network traffic on your computer through the VPN connection.
- If there are multiple established VPN connections with the option “Use default gateway on remote network” checked, Windows will automatically pick the network with highest priority. The priority is usually defined automatically, but can be changed by unchecking “Automatic metric” and specifying a manual metric value.
- For each established VPN connection, a default route will be added for network based on a single class-based network ID, unless “Disable class based route addition” is checked, in which case no default routes will be added.
How does this explain the behavior I encountered? The answer lies in the automatic addition of default route. When the computer routes all traffic to the VPN connection (e.g. “Use default gateway on remote network” is checked), all requests will be routed through the VPN default gateway and thus I was able to access 192.168.20.1 and 22.214.171.124, despite not being able to access the Internet (since the VPN network is isolated). However, when the VPN does not have traffic priority (e.g. “Use default gateway on remote network” is unchecked), requests will be routed through the wireless connection, unless there is a specific route from the target IP address to the VPN default gateway.
In my case, the DNS server IP address (192.168.20.1) is within the single class network covered by the default route and is therefore automatically accessible. However, IP 126.96.36.199 is on a different network class and not covered by the default route, causing its requests to terminate on the wireless connection default gateway and failed.
The solution is to manually add a route that cover the path to 188.8.131.52 and other computers not on the same network class which I intend to access. This can be done using the route command. You may need to run Command Prompt as administrator to execute the route addition:
route add 184.108.40.206 mask 255.0.0.0 192.168.20.1 metric 1
With this, you can ping the 192.168.x.x network, 220.127.116.11 and any other 11.x.x.x IP addresses with no issues, while at the same time still able to access the Internet.
Just for educational purposes, if “Use default gateway on remote network” is unchecked and “Disable class based route addition” is checked, access to 192.168.x.x will also failed unless a manual route is added:
route add 192.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 192.168.20.1 metric 1
Interestingly, during my research, I found many forum posts claiming this to be a bug with Windows networking stack. Microsoft also published a hotfix here, although this is intended for cases where Internet access is still limited despite the VPN providing full Internet access, and not for my cases where the VPN indeed has no route to the Internet. Most answers I found (even on MSDN) simply suggested unchecking “Use default gateway on remote network”, which result in replies saying that the internal network is inaccessible following the changes, defeating the purposes of the VPN! Of course this will be the case unless the behavior of default route addition is understood.
Also, although the route command supports a -p parameter to add a persistent route which will still remain after a reboot, I have found its usage to be buggy. Firstly, the presumably persistent route will still be removed after reboot and needs to be re-added. Secondly, when the route is re-added, there will be an error message “The route addition failed: The object already exists” even though the route effectively does not exist. This may indeed be a Windows networking stack bug, or might perhaps be a problem with my network settings.
Similar to Windows, for each VPN connection on Mac OS X, a similar checkbox called “Send all traffic over VPN connection” is provided:
Unlike Windows, the default setting for this option is unchecked so all traffic will by default go though all available network connections in the order of priority specified in the Set Services Order window:
During my testing, the default route for the VPN connection on Mac OS X did not cover the entire single class network like on Windows, so we’ll need to add the route manually to access the servers that we want to (unless “Send all traffic over VPN connection” is checked):
route -n add 192.0.0.0/8 192.168.20.1
This command will need to be prefixed with sudo or otherwise run as superuser (via su for example) to be executed successfully.